The Distress and Risk Assessment Method (DRAM)  is a simple and straightforward psychological assessment method for pain problems. The DRAM is designed as no more than a first-stage screening procedure, whether as a confirmation of clinical impression, or to alert the clinician that a more comprehensive psychological or psychophysiological assessment is indicated.
 Main CJ, Wood PL, Hollis S, Spanswick CC, Waddell G. The Distress and Risk Assessment Method. A simple patient classification to identify distress and evaluate the risk of poor outcome. Spine. 1992 Jan;17(1):42-52.
The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10)  is a simple measure of psychological distress. The K10 scale involves 10 questions about emotional states each with a five-level response scale. The measure can be used as a brief screen to identify levels of distress. The tool can be given to patients to complete, or alternatively the questions can be read to the patient by the practitioner.
In the context of injury management, the measure can be provided to the patient where recovery is not proceeding as anticipated (for instance, between weeks four and six), and may highlight the need for more regular review, or referral to a specialist health provider such as a psychologist.
The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10)
 Kessler RC, Barker PR, Colpe LJ, Epstein JF, Gfroerer JC, Hiripi E, et al. Screening for serious mental illness in the general population. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003 Feb;60(2):184-9.
Lovibond’s Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS)  is a 42-item self report instrument designed to measure the three related negative emotional states of depression, anxiety and tension/stress. The DASS was constructed not merely as another set of scales to measure conventionally defined emotional states, but to further the process of defining, understanding and measuring the ubiquitous and clinically significant emotional states usually described as depression, anxiety and stress. The DASS should thus meet the requirements of both researchers and scientist-professional clinicians.
Each of the three DASS scales contains 14 items, divided into subscales of 2-5 items with similar content. Subjects are asked to use 4-point severity/frequency scales to rate the extent to which they have experienced each state over the past week. Scores for Depression, Anxiety and Stress are calculated by summing the scores for the relevant items.
Interpretation of scores
The DASS may be administered and scored by non-psychologists, but decisions based on particular score profiles should be made only by experienced clinicians who have carried out an appropriate clinical examination. A set of cut-off scores for defining mild/moderate/severe/extremely severe scores for each DASS scale has been developed. To avoid misinterpretation and reification of these (arbitrary) labels, they are only provided in the DASS manual which can be ordered from: http://www.psy.unsw.edu.au/research/resources/depressiontools.html.
 Crawford JR, Henry JD. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS): normative data and latent structure in a large non-clinical sample. Br J Clin Psychol. 2003 Jun;42(Pt 2):111-31.
The Global Pain Scale is to be used as a brief but thorough screening tool for physicians to use when evaluating the basic functioning levels of their patients. This tool is then to be used continually to monitor change over time in both acute or chronic pain. A one page, simple test, the Global Pain Scale will assess not only the physical aspect of pain, but will give physicians information regarding the effects pain has on their patients in four specific categories, including: a numeric rating scale, how pain has affected the patient’s emotional well-being, clinical outcomes, and the effect a patient’s pain has on their activities of daily living (known as ADLs).